History of town and castle
The names during the period
1246 Filek, 1262 Fylek, 1348 Castrum Phylek, 1385 Oppidum Fylek, 1528 Filekwar. Other names: Vilk, Villagkk, Vieleck, Filekinum, 1684 Villeck, 1685 Filleck, 1742 Filek, 1786 Fülek, Filakowo, 1863-1913 Filekow, 1920 Filakovo, 1938-1945 Fülek, 1948-1990 Fiľakovo, since 1991 Fiľakovo (in Slovak) and Fülek (in Hungarian).
In the 12-th century there was already the castle with a square tower, palace and palisade on the volcanic top of a basalt rock 65m high.
In the year 1440 queen Elizabeth, the owner of the castle, accredited Ján Jiskra to ensure the domain. In the year 1483 the castle was conquered by Matej Korvín who expelled Štefan Perényi from the castle.
From the year 1490 captain Raškaj is authorized to administer the castle. His daughter married František Bebek and the castle was given to him as a marriage portion.
As the Turkish danger rose, the castle was rebuilt in 1551 according to the plans of an Italian architect Alessandro Da Vedano into a massive renaissance fortress. It was enlarged and stronged. The middle and lower castle was built with two pentagonal bastions, walls, entrance corridor and cannon positions. In the same time the town got the wall with the gates and bastions as well.
The castle was a component of the defence line against the Turkish expansion in the 16-th century. In 1554 the Turks captured the castle and had been governing in and around Filakovo for 39 years.
The territorial integrity of Novohrad has been violated by the Turks in the second half of the 16th century. They were successful in subduing almost the whole territory of the county (they conquered also the castles of Novohrad, Modrý Kamen, Divín, Šomoška, Salgó ant others). From Filakovo beg Hamza and after him other begs (Velidžan (1562-1564), Arslan beg (1564), Mehemed (Mahmat 1575), Hasan (1576), Mahmud (1579), Korkud (1579-1590), Ali (1591) a Jusuf beg (1593)) ruled to the large part of southern Slovakia, called Filakovo sanjak.
Counts Nicholas Pállfy and Christooph Tiefenbach with the royal army liberated the castle and its surroundings in 1593. There was a fire, which ruined a part of the castle and town in 1615. Stephanus Koháry I got the castle from the emperor in 1657. His son, Stephanus Koháry II ordered to rebuild the ruined parts in 1667.
Emerich Thököly, the reigning prince of Transsylvania with the help of the big Turkish army captured the castle in 1682. The castle was destroyed and since this year remained in ruins. Thököly was proclaimed the Hungarian king here. Stephanus Koháry II after his liberation from Thököly's confinement ordered to build the new church and monastery in 1725.
Fiľakovo in 1593Literature: